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Augmentin (Amoxicillin)
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Augmentin

Augmentin is an oral antibacterial combination consisting of amoxicillin and the beta lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate potassium (the potassium salt of clavulanic acid).

Other names for this medication:
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Similar Products:
Amoxil, Cipro, Bactrim, Ampicillin, Trimox

 

Also known as:  Amoxicillin.

Description

Augmentin is a brand name for an antibiotic, called co-amoxiclav, that is used to treat a wide range of conditions, from bronchitis to Lyme disease. It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics for children, frequently dispensed for ear infections.

The drug is a combination of two active ingredients: amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Together, the drugs fight bacteria that would ordinarily be resistant to amoxicillin alone.

Dosage

Augmentin is typically taken orally, in pill form for adults, and in a liquid (often flavored) suspension for little children. Doctors prescribe the drug so often because it works against many types of disease-causing bacteria.

"When I travel I always have some Augmentin in my travel bag," because it works against so many common infections, said Dr. Alasdair Geddes, an emeritus professor of infectious diseases at the University of Birmingham in England, who ran some of the first clinical trials of Augmentin.

Augmentin is one of the workhorses of the pediatrician's office, prescribed for ear infections that are resistant to amoxicillin alone, sore throats and certain eye infections. The drug is also a powerful agent against bronchitis and tonsillitis caused by bacteria (though many cases of sore throat are viral in origin).

In addition, the drug can fight pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, and skin infections. The drug has also been seen as a good potential candidate for treatment of Lyme disease, chlamydia, sinusitis, gastritis and peptic ulcers, according to a 2011 study in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Though Augmentin hasn't been conclusively shown to be safe during pregnancy, some studies suggest it is unlikely to do harm to pregnant women or their fetuses, according to a 2004 study in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Women who are pregnant should check with their doctors before taking the drug. The Food and Drug Administration classifies Augmentin as a class B drug, meaning there is no evidence for harm.

Overdose

If you take too much this medication, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center, or seek emergency medical attention right away.

If this medication is administered by a healthcare provider in a medical setting, it is unlikely that an overdose will occur. However, if overdose is suspected, seek emergency medical attention.

Storage

Store Augmentin at or below 77 degrees F (25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep Augmentin out of the reach of children and away from pets.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Augmentin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Augmentin is contraindicated in patients with a history of serious hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis or Stevens-Johnson syndrome) to amoxicillin, clavulanate or to other beta lactam antibacterial drugs (e.g., penicillins and cephalosporins).

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This 38% excess mortality indicated that C. difficile increased mortality and did not simply colonise the sickest patients. Changing prophylaxis to Co-amoxiclav was the most effective measure. This reduced the incidence of C. difficile by 80% and thus reduced mortality by prevention rather than cure.

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Human bites to the hand or penetrating injuries contaminated with saliva can be a source of aggressive infection and debilitating injury. These types of injuries may also be a mode for the transmission of disease, notably hepatitis B. Dental personnel have an increased risk of experiencing bite injuries and should understand the general principles of appropriate management. Staphylococcal or streptococcal species are often associated with infected bite injuries, and amoxicillin and clavulanate are currently advised for prophylaxis. Wound cleansing and careful monitoring, combined with appropriate prophylaxis, are the mainstays of treatment.

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The aims of this investigation were to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and to identify parameters, based on individual plasma concentration-time curves of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in cats, that may govern the observed differences in absorption of both drugs. The evaluation was based on the data from plasma concentration-time curves obtained following a single-dose, open, randomised, two-way crossover phase-I study, each involving 24 female cats treated with two Amoxi-Clav formulations (formulation A was Clavubactin and formulation was B Synulox; 80/20 mg, 24 animals, 48 drug administrations). Plasma amoxicillin and clavulanic acid concentrations were determined using validated bioassay methods. The half-life of elimination of amoxicillin is 1.2 h (t1/2 = 1.24 +/- 0.28 h, Cmax = 12.8 +/- 2.12 microg/ml), and that of clavulanic acid 0.6 h (t1/2 = 0.63 +/- 0.16 h, Cmax = 4.60 +/- 1.68 microg/ml). There is a ninefold variation in the AUCt of clavulanic acid for both formulations, while the AUCt of amoxicillin varies by a factor of two. The highest clavulanic acid AUCt values indicate the best absorption; all other data indicate less absorption. Taking into account that the amoxicillin-to-clavulanic acid dose ratio in the two products tested was 4:1, the blood concentration ratios may actually vary much more, apparently without compromising the products" high efficacy against susceptible microorganisms.

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Emerging resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are potentially linked to injudicious use of drugs leading to ineffective empirical therapy and in turn, appearance of even more resistant strains of the bacterium. Therefore, we recommend culture and sensitivity testing to determine the presence of P.aeruginosa prior to specific antimicrobial therapy.

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Double disc diffusion tests using cephalosporin discs adjacent to an amoxicillin/clavulanate 3 microg disc, prediffusion tests, where an amoxicillin/clavulanate 3 microg disc was prediffused before being replaced with a cephalosporin disc, and combination cephalosporin/clavulanate discs were used to screen recombinant H. influenzae expressing cloned ESBLs. Methods initially determined to be suitable were validated by testing a range of clinical strains.

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Augmentin (Beecham Laboratories, Bristol, Tenn.), a combination drug consisting of two parts amoxicillin to one part clavulanic acid and a potent beta-lactamase inhibitor, was evaluated in vitro in comparison with ampicillin or amoxicillin or both for its inhibitory and bactericidal activities against selected clinical isolates. Regression analysis was performed and tentative disk diffusion susceptibility breakpoints were determined. A multicenter performance study of the disk diffusion test was conducted with three quality control organisms to determine tentative quality control limits. All methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and Haemophilus influenzae isolates were susceptible to Augmentin, although the minimal inhibitory concentrations for beta-lactamase-producing strains of both groups were, on the average, fourfold higher than those for enzyme-negative strains. Among the Enterobacteriaceae, Augmentin exhibited significantly greater activity than did ampicillin against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter diversus, Proteus vulgaris, and about one-third of the Escherichia coli strains tested. Bactericidal activity usually occurred at the minimal inhibitory concentration. There was a slight inoculum concentration effect on the Augmentin minimal inhibitory concentrations. On the basis of regression and error rate-bounded analyses, the suggested interpretive disk diffusion susceptibility breakpoints for Augmentin are: susceptible, greater than or equal to 18 mm; resistant, less than or equal to 13 mm (gram-negative bacilli); and susceptible, greater than or equal to 20 mm (staphylococci and H. influenzae). The use of a beta-lactamase-producing organism, such as E. coli Beecham 1532, is recommended for quality assurance of Augmentin susceptibility testing.

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The most cost-effective alternative in the antibiotic treatment of patients with RSA was ACC while for RSC it was ciprofloxacin; sensitivity analysis showed the strength of the base study results.

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Our patient presented with symptoms consistent with an upper respiratory tract infection, as well as severe headache, disequilibrium, and diplopia. Physical examination demonstrated left-sided sixth cranial nerve palsy. Imaging studies were consistent with right sphenoid sinus inflammatory disease. Her medical history was significant for a similar episode 9 years previously, which was managed medically. The current episode was treated acutely with antibiotics and prednisone. Upon resolution of her symptoms, she underwent an endoscopic sphenoidotomy.

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Introduction of therapeutic guidelines for specific departments or indications, which proposed alternative antibiotics to amoxicillin-clavulanate. The perioperative prophylactic use of amoxicillin-clavulanate was eliminated completely.

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The use of prophylactic Augmentin in PPROM significantly prolongs gestation. It appears to decrease neonatal and maternal morbidity due to sepsis.

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There is poor compliance with national (and international) guidelines for the management of buy augmentin AOM in this ED. National guidelines must be introduced into the department by direct teaching at senior house officer and middle grade level, a re-audit must be carried out and regular reviews of the notes of patients diagnosed with AOM must be undertaken to ensure compliance with guidelines is maintained.

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Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin are each effective against many bacteria that cause infections in the skin and skin structures. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is potent against staphylococci, streptococci (including enterococci), and anaerobes, although adverse gastrointestinal reactions are common. Cefuroxime axetil is similarly effective yet is used only rarely because of its more common use in infections of the respiratory tract and the prevalent use of second-generation cephalosporins in surgical prophylaxis. The newer quinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are effective against staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibit only low toxicity; these agents have been used in many difficult tissue infections--notably, chronic infected ulcers in diabetic patients. Oral antimicrobial therapy, when chosen on the basis of culture and susceptibility results and combined with surgical debridement and local management, may be effective for many problematic infections of the skin and skin structures Buy Metronidazole Tablets Uk heretofore treated with parenteral antibiotics.

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Clinical microbiology data were collected for all urine cultures from patients with visits to primary care clinics in a regional health maintenance organization between 2005 and 2010. The first positive culture for E. coli tested for antibiotic susceptibilities per patient per year was included in the analysis dataset. The frequency of susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) was calculated for Buy Floxin male and female patients. The Cochrane-Mantel-Haenzel test was used to test for differences in age-stratified susceptibility to each antibiotic between males and females.

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There is wide variation in UK prescribing practice regarding prophylactic antibiotics for nasal packing in spontaneous epistaxis. There are few published cases of Buy Ciprofloxacin 500mg Online infective complications in such patients.

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The results from the general linear model showed a statistically significant (F = 16.1; P < . Buy Keflex Antibiotics 01; r(2) = 0.95) time-related decrease in the size of exposed bone areas during the nonsurgical therapy (from 12.5 ± 12.0 mm to 8.8 ± 10.3 mm).

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A cohort of 1,391 patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology, atypical pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila pneumonia, viral pneumonia, or pneumococcal pneumonia was studied according to a standard protocol to analyse whether the addition of a macrolide to beta-lactam empirical treatment decreases mortality rates. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit were excluded. Severity was assessed using the PORT score. An etiological diagnosis was achieved in 498 (35.8%) patients (292 infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae). Treatment was chosen by the attending physician according to his/her own criteria: beta-lactam agent in 270 and beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide in 918 cases. The mortality rate was 13.3% in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent alone and 6.9% Buy Metronidazole For Fish in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (p=0.001). The percentage of PORT-group V patients was 32.6% in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent alone compared to 25.7% in the group who received a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (p=0.02). After controlling for PORT score, the odds of fatal outcome was two times higher in patients treated with a beta-lactam agent alone than in those treated with a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (adjusted OR = 2, 95%CI 1.24-3.23). The results suggest that the addition of a macrolide to an initial beta-lactam-based antibiotic regimen is associated with lower mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, independent of severity of infection, thus supporting the recommendation of a beta-lactam-agent plus a macrolide as empirical therapy.

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The results of this study demonstrate the clinical and bacteriologic Buy Metronidazole Or Tinidazole equivalence and improved gastrointestinal tolerability of a 7-day course of once-daily extended-release clarithromycin relative to a 10-day course of twice-daily amoxicillin/clavulanate in the treatment of AECB.

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Human bite on genitalia is a rare cause of penile ulceration, but is increasingly being reported, probably due to the increasing frequency of orogenital sex. The great morbidity associated with it brings it under the category Buy Metronidazole Suppository of high-risk bite wounds, similar to those on hands, feet and joints. We report a case and review the literature on human bite-induced penile ulceration.

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The recent information Buy Metronidazole For Humans on the appearance of erythema migrans despite prophylaxis with 200 mg of doxycycline was the stimulus for a search among our patients for those who developed the skin lesion regardless of receiving antibiotics after a tick bite.

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Single-dose prophylactic Augmentin did Buy Flagyl 500 Mg not produce any clinically significant improvement in the post-operative course of patients undergoing cesarean section. If proper surgical techniques are followed in association with closed rectus sheath drainage, it is unlikely that any trial of antibiotics will be able to demonstrate any clinically significant outcome.

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Surgical exploration revealed an abscess and moderate amount of seropurulent fluid in the left caudal abdominal quadrant. A large urethrolith (3.7 x 2.0 x 1.5 cm) was evident in the proximal portion of the urethra. The urethrolith was associated with a 3 x 1-cm area of necrosis in the ventral aspect of the proximal portion of the urethra and a 3 x 3-cm area of necrosis in the area of the bladder trigone. The necrotic areas were débrided, and the defect was repaired with an axial pattern flap constructed from the rectus abdominis muscle. During a follow-up examination 2.5 years after surgery, the dog was clinically normal with no history of urinary incontinence. During rigid cystoscopy, the ure-thral mucosa appeared grossly normal, and there was no evidence of stricture.