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Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin)
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Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol (brand names include: Chlornitromycin / Chloramphenicol / Fenicol / Phenicol / Nevimycin / Vernacetin / Veticol) is a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic. Chloramphenicol is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including lung and blood infections; infections of the brain including bacterial meningitis and brain abscesses; and infections of the eye, ear or skin.

Other names for this medication:
Chloracol, Chloromycetin Sodium Succinate, Chloramphenicol Systemic

Similar Products:
Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Metronidazol, Rocephin

 

Also known as:  Chloromycetin.

Description

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes as an eye ointment to treat conjunctivitis. By mouth or by injection into a vein, it is used to treat meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. Its use by mouth or by injection is only recommended when safer antibiotics cannot be used and if used, monitoring both blood levels of the medication and blood cell levels every two days is recommended during treatment.

Dosage

Adults should receive 50 mg/kg/day in divided doses at 6-hour intervals. In exceptional cases patients with infections due to moderately resistant organisms may require increased dosage up to 100 mg/kg/day to achieve blood levels inhibiting the pathogen, but these high doses should be decreased as soon as possible. Adults with impairment of hepatic or renal function or both may have reduced ability to metabolize and excrete the drug. In instances of impaired metabolic processes, dosages should be adjusted accordingly. Precise control of concentration of the drug in the blood should be carefully followed in patients with impaired metabolic processes by the available microtechniques (information available on request).

Pediatric Patients. Dosage of 50 mg/kg/day divided into 4 doses at 6-hour intervals yields blood levels in the range effective against most susceptible organisms. Severe infections (eg, bacteremia or meningitis), especially when adequate cerebrospinal fluid concentrations are desired, may require dosage up to 100 mg/kg/day; however, it is recommended that dosage be reduced to 50 mg/kg/day as soon as possible. Children with impaired liver or kidney function may retain excessive amounts of the drug.

Neonates. A total of 25 mg/kg/day in 4 equal doses at 6-hour intervals usually produces and maintains concentrations in blood and tissues adequate to control most infections for which the drug is indicated. Increased dosage in these individuals, demanded by severe infections, should be given only to maintain the blood concentration within a therapeutically effective range. After the first two weeks of life, full-term neonates ordinarily may receive up to a total of 50 mg/kg/day equally divided into 4 doses at 6-hour intervals. These dosage recommendations are extremely important because blood concentration in all premature and full-term neonates under two weeks of age differs from that of other infants neonates. This difference is due to variations in the maturity of the metabolic functions of the liver and the kidneys. When these functions are immature (or seriously impaired in adults), high concentrations of the drug are found which tend to increase with succeeding doses.

Overdose

Overdosing by the patient is nearly impossible, as Chloramphenicol is administered via IV delivery, however an overdose can still happen. The symptoms of an overdose are likely to include nausea, vomiting, mouth odor or unpleasant taste in the mouth, bone marrow suppression, and diarrhea.

Storage

Keep all medicines out of the reach and sight of children.

Chloramphenicol eye drops (including single-use units) must be kept in a fridge (2 to 8 degrees C).

Chloramphenicol eye ointment should be stored in a cool, dry place, away from direct heat and light.

Throw away the bottle or tube of chloramphenicol after you have finished the five-day course of treatment, even if there is some left. Never keep opened bottles or tubes to use later.

Single-use units should be used as soon as the unit is opened. Do not store or re-use opened units for subsequent doses. This is because the units do not contain any preservative.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Chloramphenicol are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Chloramphenicol if you are allergic to Generic Chloramphenicol components.

Try to be careful with Generic Chloramphenicol if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Chloramphenicol can harm your baby.

Generic Chloramphenicol should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Chloramphenicol taking suddenly.

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To study the horizontal transfer efficiencies of filamentous bacteriophage CTXPhi in different V. cholera O1 strains and the phage immunities of these strains. The infectious El Tor CTXPhi particles genetic marked by chloramphenicol resistance gene were used to infect four different V. cholerae O1 strains in vivo and in vitro. Selected the infected clones based on its character of chloramphenicol resistance and identified and judged the exist form of CTXPhi genome through Southern bolt and other hybridization methods. Calculated the infection rates of different strains and compared each other. Then we analyzed the mechanism of infection and phage immunity. The infection rate of classic strain 1119 with the genetic marked CTX(ET)Phi in vivo is much higher than that in vitro. In vitro experiment, the rate of 1119 is higher than other three El Tor strains. And in El Tor strains, the infection frequency of IEM101 that had no rstR gene is 100 to 1000 times higher than other two strains containing rstR. Classical biotype strain is more susceptible to CTX(ET)Phi particles than El Tor strains. Expression of TCP and the phage immunity mediated by rstR gene affect the horizontal transfection of CTXPhi in V. cholerae strains.

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The P. multocida isolate 381 was investigated for its in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and its plasmid content. A 10.8 kb florfenicol-chloramphenicol resistance plasmid, designated pCCK381, was identified by transformation into Escherichia coli. The plasmid was mapped with restriction endonucleases, cloned and sequenced completely.

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The mechanism of photoinhibition was investigated in three representative macroalgal species growing on the coast of Patagonia: the chlorophyte Ulva rigida C. Agardh, the rhodophyte Porphyra columbina Montagne and the phaeophyte Dictyota dichotoma (Huds.) Lamour. Dark adapted specimens were exposed to 15 min unfiltered solar radiation to induce photoinhibition, and subsequently the recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield was followed for up to 6 h. Photoinhibition is believed to be due to the damage and proteolysis of the D1 protein in the reaction center of Photosystem II. During recovery this protein is resynthesized. In order to prove this hypothesis, inhibitors of the chloroplast protein synthesis, streptomycin and chloramphenicol were applied. Both retarded the repair process indicating an inhibition of the D1 protein resynthesis during recovery after the damage they experienced during light exposure. Some algal groups use the xanthophyll cycle to ameliorate the inhibition by excessive light. Dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of violaxanthin de-epoxidase, was administered, to impair the xanthophyll cycle. It strongly affected both photoinhibition and recovery even in the red algal species, which do not have the xanthophyll cycle, indicating that this drug has significant side effects and should be used with caution for the study of the involvement of this protective cycle in algae. Pigmentation was followed in the three species using absorption spectroscopy of thallus extracts at 665 nm during continuous exposure to natural solar radiation or radiation deprived of the UV component during two days. The results indicated a pronounced variation in pigmentation over time due to bleaching and resynthesis. Solar radiation was monitored during the experiments in three channels (UV-B, UV-A and PAR) using an ELDONET instrument on site.

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A significant proportion of healthy Turkish children was shown to be colonized with Hib. The burden of invasive Hib infections should be determined in order to evaluate the Hib conjugated vaccine as a part of a routine immunization program in Turkey.

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Pyrimidine derivatives increased the antibiotic therapy efficacy in albino rats irradiated with RUM-7 apparatus for close-focus roentgenotherapy. 2-Methyl-4-amino-6-oxypyrimidine was twice as efficient as oxymethyluracil and 6 times as efficient as methyluracil in the stimulation of the skin reparative regeneration. When the total irradiation was performed with LUCH-1 apparatus in a dose of 6 Gy the pyrimidine derivatives also increased the antibiotic therapy efficacy. After the prophylactic use of the pyrimidine derivatives for 7 days prior to the total irradiation their therapeutic effect increased, the level of the exudative component lowered, the tissue epithelization increased, the terms of the wound healing decreased and the animal lifespan increased.

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In this report, we describe a novel recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing T7 RNA polymerase (T7-RP), which was shown to drive transient expression of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene in mammalian and mosquito cells after transfection of plasmids carrying the reporter gene under the control of the T7 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a T7-RP-based expression in mosquito cells. Expression of the cat gene was significantly enhanced in mammalian cells by inserting the sequence of the encephalomyocarditis virus internal ribosome entry site between the T7 promoter and the 5' end of the cat gene. In mosquito cells, the level of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity was increased by flanking the cat gene with the Autographa californica baculovirus p10 gene 5' and 3' untranslated regions. SFV expressing T7-RP appears, therefore, to be an alternative to other virus-based gene-expression systems in mammalian cells and a powerful tool for protein expression in mosquito cells.

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Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients. The multidrug resistance of these bacteria remains poorly understood. We have characterized in a clinical strain the first resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump in this species: AxyABM. The inactivation of the transporter component axyB gene led to decreased MICs of cephalosporins (except cefepime), aztreonam, nalidixic acid, fluoroquinolones, and chloramphenicol.

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The Prion protein (PrP) plays a central role in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Mutations in the protein coding region of the human PrP gene (PRNP), which have been proposed to alter the stability of the PrP protein, have been linked to a number of forms of TSE. However, the majority of CJD cases are not associated with mutations in the PRNP coding region and alternative mechanisms must therefore underlie susceptibility to these forms of CJD. Transgenic mice, that over- or under-express PrP genes, have shown a correlation between the level of PrP gene expression and the incubation time of disease. Polymorphisms that lead to alterations in human PRNP gene expression, could therefore be candidates for influencing susceptibility of an individual to CJD. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we have defined an upstream and intronic regulatory region of the PRNP gene. Sequencing of these regions in controls, sporadic CJD (sCJD) and variant CJD (vCJD) patients has identified three polymorphisms, all of which are more common in sCJD patients than controls. Our data suggests that polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the PRNP gene may be a risk factor for CJD.

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buy chloramphenicol ointment 2015-08-10

Although Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease in humans worldwide, its potential to adapt to Buy Cephalexin For Humans the stressful conditions and survive in extra-intestinal environment is still poorly understood. We tested the effect of heat shock (55 degrees C, 3 min) and oxidative stress (3 mM H2O2 for 10 min or prolonged incubation at atmosphere oxygen concentration) on non-starved and starved cells of Campylobacter jejuni from different growth phases. Viability as assessed with the Bacterial Viability Kit LIVE/DEAD BacLighttrade mark dying before fluorescent microscopy and culturability of the cells (CFU ml(-1)) from both growth phases showed that starvation increased heat but not oxidative resistance. High temperature and oxidative stress invoked quick transformation from culturable spiral shaped to nonculturable spiral and coccoid cells. Despite physiological changes of the cells we were not able to document clear differences in the expression of heat shock and starvation genes (dnaK, htpG, groEL), oxidative (ahpC, sodB), virulence (flaA) and housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD) after heat treatment (55 degrees C, 3 min) or oxidative stresses applied. When starving, no induction of expression of any of these genes was noticed, chloramphenicol had no influence on their gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that at least 10-20 min of heat shock was necessary to evidently increase the amount of groEL and rpoD transcripts.

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A pBRINT-Ts family of integrative vectors for Escherichia coli was constructed by using a temperature-sensitive replicon derived from pSC101, a region of homology to the lacZ gene, and various antibiotic resistance markers (kanamycin, chloramphenicol and gentamycin) for selection of the integrants. The gene or Buy Terramycin Powder Uk group of genes to be integrated can be inserted into a multiple cloning site, flanked by an antibiotic resistance marker and lacZ sequences. A simple and rapid procedure was developed for the selection of cells where allelic exchange had occurred. With this procedure, the efficiency of integration of around 10-3 was observed, using several E. coli strains. From colonies with an integrated pBRINT-Ts plasmid, we detected an average allelic exchange event frequency of 7.5%. As a test for this system, we integrated the amy gene that codes for the alpha-amylase from B. stearothermophilus, into the lacZ gene of E. coli W3110. Production of alpha-amylase was found to be proportional to copy number; at up to 10 copies per chromosome.

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A population-based case-control study of aplastic anemia has been conducted in Thailand since 1989. This is the largest single epidemiologic study of aplastic anemia ever performed. The objectives have been to document the incidence of the disease and to study the etiologic factors in a case-control analysis. The overall incidence of aplastic anemia was 3.9 per million per year in Bangkok, two times higher than in the West; 3.0 per million in Songkla; and 5.0 per million in Khonkaen. A difference appears in the age incidence pattern between Bangkok and the two rural areas, with double incidence peaks at ages 15 to 24 and over 60 in Bangkok, yet a more steady increase in incidence with increasing age in the rural areas. With regard to possible etiologic factors, there is a strong inverse association between incidence of the disease and socioeconomic status as determined by total household income and years of education. There are also significant positive associations with occupational exposure to solvents and agricultural Buy Zithromax Boots pesticides. Only a few drugs, including thiazide diuretics, sulfonamide, and mebendazole are associated with the disease. There continues to be no evidence of association with chloramphenicol. The etiologic fraction for all associated drugs is lower than 5%. Household pesticide use is not associated with the disease. Exposure to hepatitis A virus is a risk indicator for aplastic anemia and may be a surrogate marker for another enteric infectious agent.

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To report two cases of Buy Amoxicillin Boots Pharmacy pneumococcal keratitis after LASIK.

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To describe the Buy Azithromycin Powder signalment, month of presentation, common clinical signs, clinicopathologic values, diagnostic tests used, antimicrobial use, and survival status in horses affected with EPE; to evaluate how affected horses sold at public auction as yearlings; and to determine results of fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) results in age matched, clinically normal herdmates.

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Rapamycin (RPM) is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus FC904 isolated from soil in Fuzhou, China. It is a triene macrolide antibiotic with potential application as an immunosuppressant and drug for human gene therapy. In an attempt to improve rapamycin production, mutation and screening of the parent culture have been carried out. Thousands of survivors were obtained after mutagenesis by NTG (3 mg/ml) and UV (30 W, 15 cm, 30 seconds) of spore suspensions. None showed improved production of RPM. We determined the susceptibility to antibiotics of S. hygroscopicus FC904 by two fold dilutions of antibiotics in oatmeal agar plates. It was found that the strain was resistant to penicillin, erythromycin, RPM, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, but susceptible to mitomycin C (MIC, 10 microg/ml) and aminoglycosides such as gentamicin (MIC, 0.1 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC, 0.1 microg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC, 0.3 microg/ml). Protoplasts of strain FC904 were prepared after finding the best conditions for their formation. They were treated with gentamicin, erythromycin, mitomycin C and NTG. Surprisingly, gentamicin was especially effective for obtaining higher RPM-producing mutants. Mutant C14 was selected by exposing the protoplasts of the parent strain FC904 to 1 microg/ml of gentamicin at 28 degrees C for 2 hours. A higher RPM-producing mutant (C14-1) was obtained from the protoplasts of mutant C14 treated with gentamicin, and its titer was 60% higher than that of the parent strain FC904 by HPLC analysis. Another improved mutant (C14-2) was obtained from the spores of mutant C 14 treated with 1 microg/ml of gentamicin plus 2 mg/ml of NTG at 28 degrees C for 2 hours. Mutant C14-2 had a titer 124% higher than FC904. The possible mechanism for the effect of gentamicin by using protoplasts or spore suspensions will be discussed, i.e. the possibility of gentamicin being a mutagen or a selective agent.

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The investigation provided original information on the distribution of resistance mechanisms, determinants and genetic elements in VGS. Erythromycin-resistant isolates totalled 148 (56.3%; 37 belonging to the cMLS phenotype and 111 belonging to the M phenotype); there were 72 (27.4%) and 7 (2.7%) tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant isolates, respectively. A number of variants of known genetic contexts and elements carrying determinants of resistance to these antibiotics were detected, including the mega element, Φ10394.4, Tn2009, Tn2010, the IQ element, Tn917, Tn3872, Tn6002, Tn916, Tn5801, a tet(O) fragment from ICE2096-RD.2 and ICESp23FST81.

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To evaluate the incidence, molecular basis and distribution among genomic types of antimicrobial drug resistance in Salmonella enterica (S.) serovar Brandenburg isolates recorded in the Principality of Asturias, Spain.

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Five hundred and fifty four Salmonellae isolated from cattle, camels, sheep, goats and pigs were tested with a variety of antimicrobials. The percentages of the variations attributable to heterogeneities were low for chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone (I(2) = 0) and high for ampicillin, co-trimoxazole and ciprofloxacin resistance estimates (I(2) > 75%). The pooled estimate of ampicillin resistant isolates was higher in slaughtered ruminants (17.28%) than in pigs (3.95%), (p < 0.001). The pooled estimates of co-trimoxazole resistant isolates in true ruminants (4.35%) and pigs (1.12%) were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The overall pooled estimates of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone resistant isolates were 2.24% and 1.25%, respectively. Seven serotypes have been reported to be resistant to antimicrobials uncommonly used in veterinary clinical practice in Ethiopia.

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Recombinant vaccinia virus is a useful and powerful tool for the expression and study of foreign genes. Methods that are currently available for the selection of vaccinia virus recombinants include the restoration of viral plaque-forming phenotype, the replication of viral DNA in the presence of BUdR or mycophenolic acid, and the maturation and propagation of virus under antibiotic selection. Though effective, each of these methods requires several weeks of concerted effort to isolate, purify, and amplify a potential recombinant virus. Here we report the development of a bifunctional enzyme (BiZyme) to simplify and expedite the isolation and purification of vaccinia virus recombinants. This novel selection marker is composed of an in-frame fusion between the genes encoding gfp and the neomycin phosphotransferase enzyme (neo). Remarkably, expression of the chimeric gfp-neo cassette in the presence of G418 confers both viability and fluorescence to transfected or recombinant virus-infected cells, indicating that both activities are retained within the fusion protein. Therfore, BiZyme was incorporated into a recombination plasmid (pGNR) to enable the concomitant insertion of a foreign gene of interest. Here we demonstrate that this selection/amplification process requires a minimum of 11 days to produce the desired vaccinia virus recombinants. Furthermore, recombinants produced in this fashion have been shown to express both biologically active enzymes and antigenically authenticforeign antigens. In addition to its use in the vaccinia virus vector system, the BiZyme bifunctional selection scheme should be applicable to other eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, simply by coupling it to the appropriate host-specific transcription regulatory signals.

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In order to see whether the susceptibility of Danish Listeria monocytogenes strains has changed over the years we examined a collection of human isolates from the period 1958-2001. We, furthermore, wanted to compare L. monocytogenes susceptibility testing using a disc diffusion assay with MIC measurements performed by the E-test. 106 strains isolated predominantly from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluids were examined together with three reference strains. Susceptibility to the following antibiotics was tested by the E-test and by Oxoid discs using Iso-sensitest agar: penicillin G, ampicillin, meropenem, gentamicin, sulphamethoxazole, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The strains were in the main sensitive to all antibiotics examined using both methods, except for ciprofloxacin, where the strains were intermediate sensitive. However, for penicillin, ampicillin and sulphamethoxazole, while the disc diffusion assay found the strains to be sensitive, MIC measurements generally placed the strains one dilution above the breakpoint for sensitivity in the intermediate sensitive group. Based on the MIC measurements, the antibiotic susceptibility of L. monocytogenes has not changed in Denmark from 1958 to 2001, and the multiresistant strains found in human infections elsewhere have not been found in Denmark.