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Of the 205 strains tested, 116 (56.5%) were from community-acquired infections, and 89 (43.5%) were from hospital-acquired infections. Resistance rates of community-origin strains against ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 25%, whereas they were 26.7% against norfloxacin. Ciprofloxacin was the most effective quinolone (65.2%) against hospital-origin strains. E. coli was the most commonly isolated etiological agent from both community- and hospital-acquired infections.
1-Ethyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarbo xylic acid (Norfloxacin, MK-0366), a new nalidixic acid analog was shown to be significantly more active against Enterobacteriaceae than nalidixic acid and cinoxacin and about four times as active as oxolinic acid. The compound was highly effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml). In contrast to the other compounds, norfloxacin inhibited group B and D streptococci, whereas against staphylococci, both norfloxacin and oxolinic acid were shown to be active. The new compound proved to be bactericidal at minimum inhibitory concentrations. Nalidixic acid-resistant strains of various species were less sensitive to norfloxacin than nalidixic acid-sensitive bacteria, although the MICs for these strains remained well within therapeutically obtainable levels. Variants with decreased sensitivity could easily be obtained in vitro with all compounds; however, high-level resistance was not observed with norfloxacin in contrast to the other three compounds.
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There has been inadequate evaluation of an antibiotic for eradication of nontyphoidal salmonellae (NTS) in asymptomatic carriers. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, such efficacy was evaluated using 2 five-day regimens (norfloxacin, 400 mg twice per day, and azithromycin, 500 mg once per day) compared with placebo. The study included 265 food workers in an area of Thailand where NTS are endemic who were asymptomatic NTS carriers. The presence of NTS in stool samples was assessed on days 7, 30, 60, and 90 after start of treatment. At each assessment visit, <4% of participants in each of the 3 groups carried an initial Salmonella serotype; 16%-35% had new Salmonella serotypes detected, except on day 7 in the azithromycin group, when the rate was 4%. Sanitation was good at work but not at home. Selection of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Schwarzengrund was demonstrated. The study regimens were not better than placebo for treatment of asymptomatic food workers who carried NTS in an area where these organisms are endemic, and use of the regimens resulted in antimicrobial resistance.
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A micro flow analysis (μFA) system has been designed and fabricated for determination of total iron. The system consists of a microchannels fabricated by etching the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by using laser ablation techniques and a sealed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as top plate. The PMMA micro-flow was topped with a home-made polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-flow through cell, which was integrated with light emitting diode (LED) as light source and a USB 2000 spectrometer as detector. The proposed μFA system was applied to determination of Fe(III) using norfloxacin as a less-toxic complexing agent in an acetate buffer solution pH 4.0, resulting in a yellow colored complex which gave the maximum absorption at 430nm. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the concentration range of 0.20-5.00mgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD, defined as 3σ) and limit of quantification (LOQ, defined as 10σ) were 0.12 and 0.45mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) for repeatability and reproducibility were less than 1.50% and 1.24% (n=11) for 0.2mgL(-1) and 1.0mgL(-1) Fe(III), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of total iron in water samples, validated by the FAAS standard method after digestion by HNO3 and H2O2.
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The use of monodose (800 mg) per os of Norfloxacin was evaluated in 32 patients with cholera at Salvador Mazza's Hospital, Salta, Argentina. It was considered the celerity in negativization of stool culture (100% of cases: 12 hours post administration), it efficiency along time (24/24 controlled patients were negative at 10th day) and MIC of isolated strains (100% of strains were sensitive: range 0.008 to 0.016 micrograms/ml). It was included oral administration of sorbitol 70% in peanut oil in order to study patients at 10th day's control. This method could be an alternative one in the study of asymptomatic carrier. Norfloxacin monodose shows good performance in early negativization of stool culture and it was also effective along the whole observation period, suggesting it could prevent carriage.
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Biochars were produced using a Dianchi Lake sediment at different temperatures and their sorption characteristics with five organic contaminants (with solubilities varied three orders of magnitude) were compared. Freundlich model showed satisfying fitting results of the sorption isotherms. Distinct decrease of nonlinear factors was observed for all five contaminants with pyrolysis suggesting wider energy distribution of the sorption sites after pyrolysis. No clear trend was observed between K(d) and the chemical properties of the five chemicals. Phenanthrene and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) showed increased sorption with increased pyrolysis temperature, while the sorption of bisphenol A (BPA), ofloxacin (OFL) and norfloxacin (NOR) in the original sediment was comparable to those in the thermally treated samples. Electrostatic repulsion played an important role in SMX sorption as suggested by its lowest hydrophobicity-normalized sorption coefficients among the five chemicals. Possible sorption mechanisms were discussed and the sorption of SMX and PHE on the produced biochars were compared with natural adsorbents (including soils, sediments, and inorganic mineral particles).